Pump selection for a well: submersible or surface
Design features of surface and submersible pumps
Surface type electric pumps are placed on the ground near the wellhead, water is supplied from it by suction. To prevent deformation and pinching during suction, not rubber hoses are used to supply water, but plastic pipes equipped with a check valve so that water does not overflow. These pumps are easy to maintain and install, as they are always directly accessible.Choosing a surface pump, pay attention to the reliability of the check valve, which should ensure the tightness of the system.
Submersible or submersible pumps are installed in the well itself, under the surface of the water in close proximity to the bottom, in order to ensure a continuous flow of water in case of drought when the water level drops.These are quite powerful devices capable of providing water to a height of 40 to 80 meters and above. To supply water to them can be used as a rubber hose, and a plastic pipe. The disadvantages of such pumps include the inconvenience of maintenance: for these purposes, the pump must be dismantled and pulled out of the well. There is an inverse relationship between the power of a submersible pump and the depth at which it is installed: the greater the depth, the less power.
Which pump to choose
The determining factor in the choice of a submersible or surface pump is the depth of the water surface in a given well. Taking into account the laws of physics and the average atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth, the surface pump will work only when the depth of the water surface in the well is less than 8 m. For other cases, you will have to buy a submersible pump, the price of which is higher, but more power.When choosing a pump, you need to take into account that the capacity was calculated on the maximum consumption, so you can slightly reduce the requirements for it in favor of greater head.
Choosing the type of pump, you must choose one that can provide the desired pressure and performance. To do this, you must know the debit of your well, i.e. how much water it can give per unit of time, as well as the required amount of pressure, taking into account the height to which water will be supplied, and its maximum consumption, taking into account the number of connection points and the needs of your family.
The value of the debit can be determined with experienced pumping. It will be more difficult to calculate the pressure you need, since in the calculation it is necessary to take into account not only the maximum height to which water is supplied, but to determine the amount of compensation due to pressure losses in the piping system according to the water supply system scheme of your house and site. Maximum consumption is determined for the case when all the points of water supply are working at the same time.When choosing a pump, you need to take into account that the capacity was calculated on the maximum consumption, so you can slightly reduce the requirements for it in favor of greater head.
In the technical documentation for the pump should be presented a graph of performance depending on the pressure.Choose a pump that will provide the maximum efficiency for the design parameters of the well that you have determined.
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