Types and construction of scaffolding
Scaffolding of various designs are widely used in the construction of buildings and restoration work at height. Previously, forests were quite fragile and fragile, so work at height was associated with a risk to life. Modern technologies make it possible to make scaffolding of a more reliable construction. And specially developed rules for working on such structures minimize the risk of falling and injury.
The most common material for making forests is wood, from which such a structure got its name. So-called home-made scaffolds are often mounted from durable and high-quality wood, where you can work at a relatively small height, for example, when building a private house. Horizontal planks are formed from thick boards, and reliable supports are attached to them.The dimensions of simple wooden scaffolding are chosen so that the worker can stand on the flooring stably, and the feet should not go beyond the edges of the structure.
The struts are attached to the main supporting elements at an acute angle, while their lower part is made pointed and securely fixed in the ground. The vertical side of the supports is nailed to the wall of the building with nails that do not hammer to the end, because it is easier to disassemble the structure upon completion of the work. After assembling the scaffolding it is necessary to ensure the reliability of the joints and strength of the whole structure. It is not recommended to perform wooden forests with a height of more than seven meters.
More durable and solid construction scaffolding made of aluminum or steel pipes. Installation of such scaffolding is carried out industrially. Usually distinguish metal scaffolding modular and frame construction. Of the frame scaffolding the most common pin, and of the modular - clamp and wedge construction. Each type of forest necessarily requires fixing to the wall with anchors. In addition, the area under the forest should be flat and rammed.As a rule, when arranging metal scaffolding, they are disposed of from the rainwater site.
The popularity of frame scaffolding due to the low price and ease of assembly.To install the structure, the construction elements are led into the corresponding holes and securely fixed by turning the fastener. Each higher-level frame is inserted into the nest of the lower part of the scaffolding, additional fixation is not required. The height of the frame scaffolding assembly can reach several tens of meters. It is important to think in advance how the tiers with the stairs will be located and accurately calculate the number of frames required for a particular building.
Another type of metal scaffolding - pin construction. Collecting them is also very simple. The difference between the pin forests is that their horizontal elements are fixed by inserting the pins into the hollow tubes. To give forests greater rigidity using braces, which are mounted diagonally. Whip woods are widely used for masonry work, at least - when finishing buildings. By combining pin and hutch forests, it is possible to construct complex circuits with a reliable and versatile framework. The cost of pin forests is somewhat higher than the frame.
More difficult arranged wedge forests. Elements of such a frame are fixed with steel wedges, which need to be hammered and hammered.The wedge forests are therefore more reliable and able to withstand significantly higher loads when compared with the pin or frame. The wedge shape is chosen to prevent spontaneous wedging. This type of forest is used not only in the construction of houses, but also in shipbuilding.
The so-called homutovy forests provide the ability to build virtually any spatial structure, including domes or complex protrusions. Such forests are incomparably more complex in design and require more careful assembly. But these difficulties pay off with the possibilities of using this type of forest, because they allow to cope with the problem of dead zones, when other types of forests cannot be applied.
What type of forest to choose
Choosing scaffolding, should proceed from the purpose of their application. To do this, take into account the urgency and the amount of planned work, as well as the presence or absence of a site to accommodate the structure.
Unpretentious and cheap frame woods are suitable for laying and finishing at a relatively small height. For higher structures, more reliable pin and clamp structures should be used, which have a higher load capacity.But the complex geometry of the structure practically leaves no choice, forcing to use the homuto scaffolding.If you are planning to work for the long term, try to choose scaffolding with galvanized collars that are resistant to corrosion.
To make the construction of forests not too costly, try to calculate the need for elements in advance. Make a diagram of the installation, providing reliable attachment points, outlining the placement of transitional ladders and safety bumpers.
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