What are fractures?

Instruction
Allocate acquired and congenital fractures. The first can be traumatic or pathological.
Traumatic fractures occur as a result of mechanical effects on the bone with a force exceeding its strength. Such impacts can be hit, fall.
Pathological fractures occur as a result of a decrease in the strength of the bone tissue, in this case, the effect of insignificant force is sufficient. Osteomyelitis, tumors, osteoporosis, neurogenic dystrophic processes provoke an increase in bone fragility.
Congenital fractures are quite rare and occur in some congenital skeletal diseases.
By the nature of the damage to the surrounding tissues emit open and closed fractures. With an open fracture, the skin is damaged, when closed it remains intact. Due to the presence of a wound with an open fracture, the risk of infection increases.
Open fractures in turn are divided into primary and secondary open.In the first case, the traumatic force affects the area of ​​damage, resulting in damage to the skin, soft tissues and bones. The wound will be quite extensive.
In the second case, the wound occurs a second time, as a result of a puncture from the inside of a bone fragment. It will be less ambitious than in the first case.
By the nature of the fracture, transverse, longitudinal, oblique, helical, splintered, fragmented, fragmented, impacted, compression and tear-off fractures are distinguished. You can also select complete and incomplete fractures. In case of incomplete fractures, a crack is formed in the bone.
There are also intraarticular, periarticular and extraarticular fractures. With intraarticular fractures, the articular surfaces are displaced - by dislocations or subluxations.


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